What is Cloning?
Cloning has been a debatable topic over the years with numerous arguments for and against it particularly in humans. However, there appears to be a very strong case that supports banning of cloning in many fonts. Unanimous responses to cloning are based on very legitimate concerns for instance with respect to relationships between human beings as well as between humans and nature.
Cloning refers to the process of creating genetically similar organisms or the production of organisms that are genetically identical through the transfer of somatic cells of an existing organism and transferring it to an oocyte where the nucleus has been extracted.
Human cloning is particularly an ethical issue that has raised different views worldwide on whether to clone or not based on information gathered evidencing the advantages and disadvantages of cloning. Cloning duplicates the genes of the individual creating a genetic duplicate but not an exact copy. Medically, there are benefits and demerits that accrue from cloning and its related technology. Additionally, there are several risks to cloning as evidenced by the numerous cloning attempts that have been unsuccessful. Dolly, the first cloned sheep was seemingly healthy but died later, the reason of her death remains unknown. In other cases, many animal clones mysteriously die very young or before birth, making it very complex to understand the aging process in cloned organisms. This is an indicator of underlying internal issues in the functioning of cloned animals despite their normal physical appearances.
Cloning becomes a violation of the fundamental basis of the human existence
Cloning negatively impacts on some of the human values especially individuality raising fundamental questions about the very nature of humans. The possibility of a different approach to reproduction could lead to more harm to humans in many aspects. This is manifested in the numerous questions that emerge from reproductive technology related to moral concerns on family, society, and sexuality. Cloning, therefore, becomes a violation of the fundamental basis of the human existence and can lead to the loss of genetic variation as well as compromise individuality.
Additionally, clones are likely to be viewed as second-class humans among other unidentified psychosocial damages with far reaching impacts on the society and family. Therefore, advocates of cloning fail to understand how cloning can revolutionize the nature of humans individuality and the dangers and risks that are associated with cloning despite the scientific benefits.
Science should take into consideration the clone's point of view
It is also worth noting that there is no chance to weigh the potential risks in advance for human clones and therefore, the risks would be part of existence. The uncertainties, failures, and dangers in experiments reflect and determine the destiny of the clones. The decisions made for cloning particularly in humans ought to put into consideration what the clone’s point of view would be. Therefore, the burden of choice is inherently and unequally shifted to the clone by the involuntary recruitment to be used in experiments.
Despite the advocates of cloning citing both therapeutic and reproductive potentials through cloning, this is confronted with numerous ethical, moral, political, and legal concerns on the adequate application of technology and the extents of scientific findings accuracy. The advancement of technology, research and science should not compromise important nature values that are deeply held by most people globally. Additionally, based on technology and scientific research available, human cloning cannot be effectively realized despite success in other animals because there are numerous inadequacies whose solution is yet to be established to fully support cloning endeavors. There numerous limitations in most of the cloning success stories in animals and further advances should be prevented to avoid endangering the human identity.
In conclusion, the disadvantages of cloning clearly outweigh its advantages by far. The issues range from ethical to emotional that continually dominate arguments related to cloning. Despite the potential scientific benefits, it is evident that cloning should be banned because of the numerous concerns, controversies and issues evidenced by the numerous attempts to produce clones but have failed on many occasions.
Therefore, a critical approach and analysis of cloning show how fascinating genetic is through science and technology, however, the issue of cloning should be banned particularly in humans to ensure humans individuality is sustained while at the same time appreciating nature holistically. The possible dangers and enormous ethical concerns cloning poses, further efforts to clone particularly in humans should be banned.
Human Cloning Should be Illegal
- Length: 573 words (1.6 double-spaced pages)
- Rating: Excellent
Human Cloning Should be Illegal
Can you imagine a world where everyone looked the same and had the same DNA? This could become true due to the advances in science in the field of cloning. We are coming into an age where scientists have started cloning non-human mammals as well as fish. Soon, they will want to start cloning humans. Since human cloning is so dangerous, unethical, and too expensive for reproductive purposes, it should be illegal.
Human cloning is dangerous. It is estimated that between 95 and 98 percent of cloning experiments have failed (Genetics and Society). These downfalls to cloning are in the form of miscarriages and stillbirths (Genetics and Society). Cloned human beings also run the risk of having severe genetic abnormalities. Children cloned from adult DNA would, in a sense, already have “old” genes. These children’s main problem would be developing and growing old too quickly. This includes arthritis, appearance, and organ function. Since the chance of having a child with mental and physical problems is so much higher than that of a normally conceived child, cloning should be illegal.
Human cloning is also unethical. Cloning, especially therapeutic cloning, requires the use of human embryos. Using these embryos would mean killing unborn children. Therapeutic cloning begins by removing the stem cells from an embryo (Human Cloning). The stem cells are used to grow bone, nerve, and muscle tissue. In the process of therapeutic cloning, an embryo, or a baby in the early stages of development, is taken and parts of it are grown to develop parts of the body including organs and limbs (Human Cloning). Removing these stem cells would kill the embryo. The embryo, which would result in a child if left in the mother’s womb, is separated into parts, which are used for science.
Finally, human cloning for reproductive purposes is too expensive. The cost to clone one human could be more than $100,000 (Herper). That is extremely high considering the cost of in vitro fertilization. In vitro fertilization costs between $3,500 and $25,000 depending on the procedure (Advanced Fertility Services). If someone could not become pregnant it is much more likely that they would chose to use fertilization and be guaranteed a healthy, normal child rather than spend the money to clone a child that could have defects. With fertilization costing only one fourth of cloning, why would someone choose to clone?
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Human Cloning Should Early Stages Human Embryos Cloning Humans Stem Cells
The world is not ready for genetically engineered children. Human cloning is too dangerous at this time for scientists and doctors to be able to clone humans effectively. It is also unethical in the sense that it requires the use of the stem cells from embryos, leaving the embryos dead. Lastly, with it costing four times as much as in vitro fertilization, cloning is too expensive right now for reproductive purposes. Therefore, with all of the drawbacks of cloning, why not make it illegal?
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Herper, Matthew. “Stem Cell Research: Cloning’s High Cost.” 26 November 2001. 9 November 2004. http://www/forbes.com/2001/11/26/1126cloning.html
“Human Cloning and Genetic Modification.” Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. 27 October 2004. http://www.arhp.org/genetics/
U.S. Department of State. “International Convention Against the Reproductive Cloning of Human Beings.” 17 October 2002. 8 November 2004. http://www.state.gov/p/io/rls/rm/2002/14551pf.htm